BSCR geography IB glossary
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Populations in Transition

Aging population: Occurs when the median age of a country or region rises.
Carrying capacity:

Crude birth rate: The percentage of newborns per year, measured by the the number of babies born per 1000 people per year.

Crude death rate: It gives an overall picture of mortality and is expressed as the number of deaths per 1000 people in a year.

Demography: Is the study of human population.

Demographic Transition Model:

Densely populated:

Dependency ratio:

Economically active population: Are those aged 15-65 years are known as the economically active or working population; This is the range of age in which the population has the
ability to keep working.

Emigration: People who live their country.

Fertility rate:

Forced migration: When people have virtually no choice but to move from an area due to natural disasters,economic, religious or social impositions.


Immigration: New comers arriving to a country.

Infant mortality rate: Is a mesure of the number of deaths of infants before their first birthday, per 1000 live births in a year.



Migration: Is a movement and in human terms usually refers to a permanent change of home. It affects the distribution of people over a given area.

Net migration gain: Countries which recieve more by immigartion than they lose through emigaration and so are likely to have an overall population increase.

Net migration loss: Countries which lose more through emigration than they gain by immigration.

Non-economically active population: Are those who are under 15 years old and over 65 years old. This people depend on economically active person. Eg: Kids need their parents to
buy them food, study, they can't work.

Optimum population: Happens when there is a balance between the number of people living in an area and the number of resources in it.

Over population: Happens when there are more people than the relative resources an area has available for them.

Population density:

Population distribution:

Pull factors: Factors that make a place more desirable for people to migrate and live there

Push factors: Factors that make a place less desirable for people to live in and thus encourage people to migrate away from there.

Ravensteins migration model:

Rural to urban migration:

Sparsely populated:


Under-population: Is the oposite to over-population. Is when there are more resources in the area that could be used by the people living there.

Voluntary migration: When people move vuluntary, there own choice due to good pull and push factors.

Zelinskys migration model:

Disparities in Wealth & Development
Bilateral aid:
Employment structure:
Fair Trade:
IMF: International Monetary Fund, organization which aims to promotes international trade and monetary cooperations and stabilization of exchange rates.

Reference: Oxford American Dictionaries
LEDC: Less Economically Developed Countries. Third world, the technologically less advanced, or developing, nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, generally characterized as poor, having economies distorted by their dependence on the export of primary products to the developed countries in return for finished products.

Long-term aid: Help that is given to enable countries to develop and improve people's quantity of life over time. For example: hospitals, factories, roads,etc.

MEDC: More Economically Developed Countries. It is used to described countries that have countries that have a high level of development according to some criteria.
Millenium Goals: Eight international developed goals that all 192 UN member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. Including eradicating extreme poverty, reducing child mortality rates, fighting AIDS and other epidemics and developing global artnership for development.

Multi-lateral aid: Organizations that involve many countries giving help. This aid is run by groups such as the World Health Organization and UN educational, scientific and cultural organization which are part of the UN.
NGO: Nongovernmental organizations. Any non-profit, voluntary citizen's group which is organized in a local, national and international level, providing humanitarian functions.


NIC: The category of newly industrialized country (NIC) is a socioeconomicclassification applied to several countries around the world by political scientists and economists. Eg: Brazil, China, etc.


Primary industry: A sector of the industry characterized for collecting and extracting natural resources and raw materials. Eg: oil extraction, fishing, farming...

Quotas: A protectionist trade restriction which sets a physical limit on the quantity of the imports.

Secondary industry: A sector of the industry characterized for manufacturing raw materials into final products.

Short-term aid: Aid given immediately to countries which are affected by a disaster (natural disasters, wars, etc). Aid can be food, clothes, medical supply and more.

Tariffs: A protectionist trade restriction which sets a tax on imports and/or exports.

Tertiary industry: Also known as service industry. A sector of the industry characterized for providing services.

World Bank: The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans[2] to developing countries for capital programmes. The World Bank has a goal of reducing poverty. By law, all of its decisions must be guided by a commitment to promote foreign investment,international trade and facilitate capital investment.


Resource Consumption
Appropriate technology: It is the type of technology designed with consideration with various aspects of the community (economic, environmental, social, ethical, etc.)
Biomass: Is is the biological material from living organisms such as wood or waste.
Fossil fuels: They are fuels formed by the decomposition of dead organisms underground.
Fuel wood: It is the fuel obtained from burning wood, occasionlly used for steam engines and turbines.
Geothermal power: It is electricity generated and stored in th earth originated from the radioactive decay of minerals.
HEP (Hydroelectric Power): Energy produced by using the power derived from moving water, normally found in rivers.
Non-renewable resources: It is a natural resorce which can't be produced, generated or re-used.
Nuclear power: Energy produced by non explosive nuclear reactions.
Renewable resources: It is a natural resource that can be replaced by natural processes.
Solar power: It is the energy obtained from the conversion of sunlight into electricity.
Wave power: It is the transport of energy by waves in the ocean.
Wind power: It is the conversion of wind energy by using wind turbines that move to generate electricity.

Environmental Sustainability
Crop rotation:
Economic water scarcity:
Energy balance: A condition in which the energy budget is balanced; the system neither gains nor loses energy.
Eutrophication: excessive nutrients in a lake or other body of water, usually caused by runoff of nutrients (animal waste, fertilizers, sewage) from the land, which causes a dense growth of plant life; the decomposition of the plants depletes the supply of oxygen, leading to the death of animal life
Evaporation: Evaporation i of a liquid that occurs only on the surface of a liquid. The other type of vaporization is boiling, which, instead, occurs on the entire mass of the liquid. Evaporation is also part of the water cycle.s a type of
Hygrometer: measuring instrument for measuring the relative humidity of the atmosphere
Irrigation: Irrigation is an artificial application of water to the soil. It is usually used to assist the growing of crops in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall
Long-wave radiation: A term used to describe the infrared energy emitted by the earth and atmosphere at wavelengths between about 5 and 25 micrometers.
Monocultures:Monoculture is the agricultural practice of producing or growing one single crop over a wide area. It is widely used in modern industrial agriculture and its implementation has allowed for large harvests from minimal labor.
Negative heat balance: When there is no equIlibrium between the radiation received by the earth and atmosphere from the sun and that emitted by the earth and atmosphere
Physical water scarcity: the situation where there is not enough water to meet all demands, including that needed for ecosystems to function effectively
Positive heat balance:
Rain gauge: a type of instrument used by meteorologists and hydrologists to gather and measure the amount of liquid precipitation over a set period of time.
Salinisation: The build up of salts in soil as a result of the capillary flow of saline water towards the surface. A common problem in areas where the land is irrigated.
Solar radiation: is radiant energy emitted by the sun, particularly electromagnetic energy. About half of the radiation is in the visible short-wave part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Strip farming: a method of farming in which long thin pieces of land across the contour are planted with different crops in order to reduce soil erosion.
Terracing: In agriculture, a terrace is a leveled section of a hilly cultivated area, designed to slow or prevent the rapid run-off of irrigation water. Often such land is formed into multiple terraces, giving a stepped appearance.
Thermometer: an instrument for measuring temperature, especially one having a graduated glass tube with a bulb containing a liquid, typically mercury or colored alcohol, that expands and rises in the tube as the temperature increases.
Weather:The state of the air or atmosphere with respect to heat or cold, wetness or dryness, calm or storm, clearness or cloudiness and other meteorological phenomena.
Freshwater - Issues & conflicts

Abrasion: (Corrasion) The process of wearing down and grinding away of bedrock by means of friction with fragments of rock, which may be incorporated in ice (glacial abrasion), water (marine abrasion, fluvial abrasion), or wind (aeolian abrasion).
In fluvial environments, the main agent of abrasion is the bed load.

Aquifer: An underground bed or layer of permeable rock, such as chalk, which holds groundwater (that is naturally purified in the aquifer) and yields it.

Attrition: In geomorphology, the wearing away or fragmentation of particles of debris (large rock fragments) by contact with other such particles (e.g. river pebbles).

Baseflow: (drought flow, groundwater recession flow, low flow, sustained or fair-weather runoff) The portion of streamflow (channel runoff or the flow of water in streams, rivers and other channels) that comes from "the sum of deep subsurface flow and delayed shallow subsurface flow".
Certain parameters of baseflow (e.g. mean residence time and the baseflow recession curve) can be useful in describing the mixing of waters (such as from precipitation and groundwater) and the level of groundwater contribution to streamflow in catchments.

Bedload: (Bottom load) The material (usually sand, gravel, soil and/or pebbles) which is carried by the natural flow of water on or immediately above a river bed by rolling and pushing (traction load), and saltation, usually at a velocity much less than that of the river.

Braiding: The process of a river becoming split into several shallow interconnected channels with small areas of dry land (banks of deposited material) between them.

  1. A flowing together of two or more streams.
  2. The point of juncture or point of joining of such streams.
  3. The combined stream formed by this juncture.

Cumecs: A unit of volume flow rate, a measurement of discharge. One cumec is one cubic metre of water per second (1 m3·s-1).

Delta: A usually triangular alluvial deposit of sediment at the mouth of a river or tidal inlet, where the stream loses velocity and drops part of its sediment load and when the river has split up into distributaries.

Deposition: the dropping of material (e.g. rocks) which has been picked up and transported by wind, water (e.g. rivers) or ice (e.g. glaciers).

Discharge: The volume of water which flows through the river at a point over a given period of time. (cross sectional are x velocity) Measured in cubic meter/second.
Distributaries: A branch of a river that flows away from the main stream.
Drainage density: The number of surface streams in a given area.
Erosion: Wearing away of a river/ rock/ coast/ surface. (4 main processes)
Evaporation: The physical process by which moisture is lost directly into the atmosphere from water surfaces, vegetation and soil, due to effects of air movement and sun's heat.
Floodplain: The flat land near a river that is susceptible to flooding.
Groundwater: Water beneath the earth surface.
Hyrdaulic action: 1st process of erosion when the power of the water loosens soil and stones.
Hydrograph (flood/storm): Measures speed at which rainfall in a drainage basin reaches the river channel.external image hydrograph.JPG
Hydrological cycle: The process by which water is cycled through the environment in its three natural states. There is no beggining of end.
Infiltration: The process by which water on the ground enters the soil.
Interception: The process by which precipitation is caught and held by leaves, trees, plants, etc.... evaporating into the air before it reaches the ground.
Lag time: The time between the point when precipitation is at its highest point over a particular drainage basin during a particular precipitation event, and the point when the discharge in the river channer is at its highesr in that drainage basin for that precipitation event.
Maximum sustainable yield: The highest fishing level possible over a period of time without puting the species in danger of population reducion. It is a balance between the fish being extracted and the reproduction of the species in the area.
Meander: A bend or curve in a stream or river.
Mouth: the point in which a stream issues into a large body of water.
Percolation: The slow passage of a liquid through a filtering medium.
Precipitation: Any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that is pulled down by gravity and deposited on the Earth's surface. Such as rain, snow, hail, mist, etc...
Recessional limb:
River basin: Portion of land from which all sources of water (including surface runoff, tributaries, groundwater, etc.) eventually drain into one main river; "as a bathtub catches the water within its sides."
Saltation: This is one of the types of transportation for particles or solids, in rivers. Saltation is the detachment of particles from the river bed, which are then carried further along the river bed by water.
Solution: When minerals in the river bed react with water and the product is mixed in the water.
Source: The place from which a river, stream or creek is originated.
Surface runoff: Surface runoff is the water that does not filter down the soil, when the soil is saturated or impermeable.
Suspension: When light materials are carried by water through the river without contact with the river bed.
Traction: When heavy, more massive objects are carried along the river by the water however these, due to their weight, “roll” along the river bed.
Transpiration: Water particles released by heat, from plants, trees, grass, etc. also referred to as evapotranspiration.
Transportation: The movement of materials along a river due to the momentum exerted by the flowing water.
Tributary: Minor, secondary rivers that eventually meet with a main river forming one, more voluminous, river.
Throughflow: Filtered water that flows within the soil layer. It usually happens when the soil is saturated by water.
Water balance: The relationship between inputs and outputs of water in a drainage basin.
Watershed: The division between two basins drained by different rivers. A ridge or mountain is what usually divides both basins.

Hazards & disasters

Urban Environments

Global Interactions